Accessibility
  • Change text size

    • Normal Text
    • Medium Text
    • Large Text
  • Contrast

    • Black&white
    • High
    • Normal
  • Display

    • Cursor White
    • Cursor Black
  •  

Pioneering the Future

You are here

The complete Haifa recommendation for the fertilization of vineyards

Our fertilization recommendation regards growing conditions in various countries, including Italy, Spain, South Africa and India

 

Plant population: 2,000-10,000 vines/Ha.
Soil type: light to medium.
Expected yield: 15-30 T/Ha.

Fertilizer recommendations

Before planting

Deep manuring at 30-80 ton/Ha will provide minerals, which are not very mobile in the soil (P2O5, K2O, MgO), and will correct high acidity that may induce Al or Cu toxicity. In fields that have only low pH (below 6) liming at 2,000-10,000 Kg/Ha will bring it up to desirable level.


Phosphorus and potassium are key-elements in the development of young vines. Sub-optimal amounts of these nutrients in the soil may result in a delay in starting the production stage. Nitrogen should be applied at this stage at small quantities as it may be lost by leaching.


We recommend the following amounts as depending on soil analysis.

Soil level

Suggested correction method

Low P

10-25 ppm

Band 1250-600 (resp.) Kg/Ha superphosphate
Medium P

25-40 ppm

Band 600-350 (resp.) Kg/Ha superphosphate
High P

40 ppm and above

Band 350-200 (resp.) Kg/Ha superphosphate
Low K

<200 ppm

360 Kg/Ha SOP
High K

>200 ppm

No correction required

 

Nonbearing vineyards

The recommended average rates of nutrients (Kg/Ha) for nonbearing plots, will ensure that production will be achieved as early as possible. The following amounts are based on plant density of 5,000 plants/Ha.

 

Vineyard age

Nutrients requirement (Kg/Ha)

Recommended fertilizers (Kg/Ha)

N

P2O5

K2O

Urea

SSP

Multi-K

2nd year

110-190

35-50

51-83

210-360

170-250

110-180

3rd year

192-240

70-100

92-115

360-450

350-500

200-250

 

The urea should be applied monthly, while the potassium nitrate should be applied every alternate month. The phosphorous may be applied as phosphoric acid if a fertigation system is available.

 

 

Mature vineyards

Macronutrients uptake* (Kg/Ha/ 20ton of grape production)

N

P2O5

K2O

MgO

CaO

160

60

190

48

360

 

 

Micronutrients uptake* (g/Ha/ 20ton of grape production)

Fe

Mn

Zn

Cu

B

895

630

470

730

180

*Uptake / removal in stems, leaves and fruit.

Stems and leaves which are reincorporated in the soil, account for about 70% of the N uptake, and 60% of the P2O5 and K2O. Net removal of these nutrients, is therefor considerably lower.

The figures mentioned in the above tables can serve as rough guidelines for the development of a fertilization regime. Attention should be paid, however, to specific factors such as soil type, vine age, yield production, cultivar, fruit use (fine wine, ordinary wine, or table grapes), and availability of a fertigation system.

 

Preferred nutrition forms, amounts and timing

The grapevine is not very demanding in this respect. The following points should, however, be borne in mind:

  • Excessive N may adversely affect quality in vineyards producing for fine wines. Other cases of low nitrogen regime are non-irrigated plots, cold climate with short growth season, areas producing for early fresh market.
  • Medium nitrogen requirement cases are for general wine production, and for dried fruit.
  • High nitrogen requiring areas are found where the produce uses for fresh as well as for dried fruit market.
  • N should be best applied as an overall dressing in late winter or in spring.
  • On clay soils with dry climates P2O5 and K2O are worked into the soil during the winter dormant period. On light soils with a wet climate, they may be topdressed together with the N.
  • Relatively little phosphorous is removed in the fruit. Adequate levels of this element, are, therefor easily met by banding SSP once every several years.
  • Potassium can be applied in a sulphate form in ordinary conditions. Potassium nitrate (Multi-K) is the fertilizer of choice in case of saline soils or water, and for heavy applications e.g. 500-1000 Kg/Ha K2O.
  • Vines respond best to potassium when applied via drip system (fertigation), between March and June (northern hemisphere) or September-December (southern hemisphere). The best technique is to apply 103 Kg/Ha of potassium nitrate (Multi-K) four times during this season.
  • Excessive potassium may adversely affect quality in vineyards producing for fine wines.

 

 

Fertilization of table grapes

A general guideline for splitting K application in fertigation programs for table grapes

 

Growth stage

Share of K2O at stage (%)

Recommended rate (kg/ha of K2O)

Leaf emergence

15

45

Flowering

20

60

Fruit-set

25

75

Fruit growth

25

75

Fruit maturation

15

45

Total

100

300

 

 

Recommendations for Italy

Suggested by: Hi - Agri,  Italy

 

Growing medium: open field.
Soil type: sandy-loam soil (light).
Plant population: 2,000 plants/ha.
Expected yield: 30 t/ha (first class grapes).

 

Recommended average rates of nutrients for table grapes (kg/ha)

N

P2O5

K2O

160-180

80-100

230-280

 

Base dressing: at the end of the winter.

Nutrient demand (kg/ha)

Recommended fertilizers (kg/ha)

N

P2O5

K2O

Poni-Ter 18.11.23

126

77

161

700

Fertigation

 

Growth stages

Nutrient demand (kg/ha)

Recommended fertilizers (kg/ha)*

N

P2O5

K2O

MgO

Multi-K

Poly-Feed 20.20.20+ME

Magnisal

Beginning of summer

21-22

20

20

1.5-2.5

-

100

10-15

After 15-20 days

13-26

-

46-92

-

100-200

-

-

Total

35-50

20

65-115

1.5-2.5

100-200

100

10-15

Multi-K: potassium nitrate 13.0.46.
Magnisal: magnesium nitrate 11.0.0.16.

 

Fertilization of table grapes in Spain

Growing medium: open field.
Soil type: sandy-loam soil.
Plant population: 2,000 plants/ha.
Annual irrigation rate: ~3,000 m3/ha.
Expected yield: 30 t/ha.

 

 

Fertigation: Recommended rates of nutrients and fertilizers

Month

Crop requirements (kg/ha)

Recommended fertilizers (kg/ha)

N

P2O5

K2O

Multi-K

MAP

AN

March

15

10

20

43

16

22

April

25

15

40

87

25

31

May

20

10

35

76

16

24

June

20

10

30

65

16

28

July

15

5

20

43

8

25

August

5

0

5

11

0

11

September

0

0

0

0

0

0

October

0

0

0

0

0

0

Total annual

100

50

150

325

81

141

Multi-K – Potassium nitrate (13-0-46).
MAP – mono-ammonium phosphate (0-61-0).
Amm. Nit – Ammonium Nitrate (34-0-0).
MgSO4 - Magnesium sulfate (0-0-0+13).

 

Fertilization of grapes (India)

Soil type: sand (<6%).
Water quality: Hard Water.
Plant population: 2500 - 2600 plant/ha.
Expected yield: 60-70 T/Ha.

Fertilization program:

Two weeks before the pruning:
100 cub organic fertilizer/Cub
1 Super phosphate ton/ha
150 Kg Magnesium Sulphate/Ha
100 Kg Zinc Sulphate /Ha

 

Two weeks after the the pruning:
Urea 150 Kg/Ha

Four weeks after the pruning:
28-28-0 250 Kg/Ha
13-0-46 Multi-K 270 Kg/Ha
                                          
Please repeat on this treatment after 15 days totally three times.

 

Pruning: 2 prunings / season. The first one in April after the harvest and the second one in September.

Fertilization of wine grapes in Spain

Soil type: sandy-loam soil.
Plant population: 2,000 plants/ha.
Annual irrigation rate: ~1,500 m3/ha.
Expected yield: 10 t/ha.

 

 

 

Fertigation: Recommended rates of nutrients and fertilizers

Month

Crop requirements (kg/ha)

Recommended fertilizers (kg/ha)

N

P2O5

K2O

MgO

Multi-K

Phosph.
acid

AN

MgSO4

April

5

3

2

0

4.5

5

8

0

May

6

5

6

1

13

8

0

7

June

5

2

9

2

20

3

0

15

July

3

0

10

2

22

0

0

15

August

3

0

10

3

22

0

0

23

September

0

0

3

0

6.5

0

0

0

October

2

2

2

0

4

3

0

0

Total annual

24

12

42

8

92

19

8

60

Multi-K – Potassium nitrate (13-0-46).
Phosphoric acid (0-61-0).
Amm. Nit – Ammonium Nitrate (34-0-0).
MgSO4 - Magnesium sulfate (0-0-0+13).

 

 

Fertilization of grapes (South Africa)

Soil type: sand (<6%).
Expected yield: 20 T/Ha.

 

Recommended average rates of nutrients for grapes (Kg/Ha):

N

P2O5

K2O

100-150

-

70-100

Nitrogen: About 60% of the entire amount should be applied at pre-harvest and the remaining 40% at post-harvest.
Phosphate: Acoording to soil analysis.
Potassium: K is mainly required for cluster formation, the pre-harvest period . 80% of the total K should be applied in the pre-harvest and the rest in autumn.

 

 

Fertigation

The total amount of fertilizers (Kg/Ha) should be split as follows:

 

Season

Nutrient requirement

Recommended fertilizer

N

P2O5

K2O

Multi-K

AN

* 4 weeks after budding to veraison (10 weeks)

60-90

-

56-80

120-170

130-200

** post-harvest (4 weeks)

40-60

-

14-20

30-45

110-160

 

 

* The first application should be applied 4 weeks after budding and must stop at veraison.
The entire amount of nitrogen is divided over the number of irrigation in this period.
** The post-harvest application is divided over four irrigations.

AN = Ammonium Nitrate  (34% Nitrogen).
Multi-K = Potassium Nitrate (13-0-46).

 

 

Breaking winter dormancy with the help of Multi-K in bearing vineyards

New experiments provided the final proof for the beneficial effect of breaking of winter dormancy by foliar sprays in bearing vines, when cold doses are not certain. Breaking of winter dormancy in such regions, is generally practiced by early spring sprays of compounds such as Armobreak, Alzodef, etc. at a relatively high cost.


Recent experiments have elucidated that these costs can be significantly  reduced by replacing part of the physiologically active agent by potassium nitrate. This combined treatment results in earlier and much more uniform dormancy breaking of the whole plot. These, in turn, bring about an increase in the share of the first harvesting wave, which yields a better income.

 

The contribution of Multi-K to dormancy breaking with Dormex

 

 

Bud burst* (%)

Yield of 1st harvest (% of commercial treatment)

Control: Unsprayed

1

63

Commercial treatment: 5% Dormex

41

100**

New treatment : 2% Dormex + 6% Multi-K

40

127

Control: 2% dormex

30

88

 

 

* Thirty days after spraying of (Perlette cultivar).
** Yield of the first wave of Superior cultivar was 26 MT/ha for the commercial treatment.

 

The saving resulting from this innovative treatment can come to $US 550 /Ha, as illustrated below

 

Treatment details

Spraying costs with 5% Alzodef.(Dormex)

Spraying costs with 2% Alzodef (Dormex) + 6% Potassium nitrate. ($US/Ha)

1000 Liter/ha with 0.025% surfactant

app. 1000 $US/Ha

app. 450 $US/Ha

 

Macro elements removed by 1 ton marketable product

 

N

P

K

Ca

Mg

S

-------------------------------------- Kg/ton ------------------------------------------

4-8

0.7-1.5

3-9

     

 

 

Source: Kinoch: VOLHOUBARE LANDBOU, RSA. Processed by Frans Lourens, Haifa, RSA May, 1999.

Sufficient nutrient range of grapes*

 

Element

Nutrient range (%)

Element

Nutrient range (ppm)

N

0.9-1.3

Mn

30-150

P

0.16-0.30

Fe

30-50

K

1.5-2.5

B

25-50

Ca

1.0-1.8

Cu

5-25

Mg

0.26-0.45

Mo

0.3-1.5

   

Zn

30-50

 

* Leaf samples taken between July 15 and August 15 from Mid-shoot leaves on current season’s growth in accordance with instruction provided with the plant analysis.
Source: Fertilizing Fruit Crops – Ohio Cooperative Extension Service, The Ohio state Universitym p. 11.

fertilizing vineyards with potassium (K) using a drip system has become a common practice in recent years. Growers will often apply 10 to 15 pounds of potassium per acre per week beginning soon after bud-break and continuing for five to ten weeks. It has been an effective technique for increasing the potassium status of grapevines.
Source: Potassium in irrigation water may slow infiltration. In: California grower p.24