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Pioneering the Future

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Get better yield from apple trees

How to get better yield from apple trees in Benelux & Germany

Haifa's fertilization recommendation for providing the apple tree with all the needed nutrients

 

Soil type: Sandy loam- clay.
Plant population: 300 trees/ha.
Expected yield: 40 T/ha.

 

 

 

Recommended rates of nutrients

(The fertilization program should be adapted according to soil analysis.)

Nutrient demand

N

P2O5

K2O

------------------Kg/ha------------------

75 - 100

30 - 50

150 - 200

 

Base-dressing

Nutrient demand

Recommended fertilizers

N

P2O5

K2O

CAN

TSP

KCl or Patentkali

------------------Kg/ha------------------

------------------Kg/ha------------------

50

30

80

200

100

200 - 300

 

Side dressing

Growth stage

Nutrient demand

Recommended Fertilizers

N

P2O5

K2O

Multi-KMg

-------------Kg/ha-----------

Kg/ha

6 weeks after flowering

25

0

80

200

 

Foliar feeding program

Stage

Dose rate (Kg/Ha)

No. of applications

Remarks

Just before bud-break Multi-K: 5-10

1

To improve bud quality & frost resistance
June - July Multi-K: 5-10

3

For varieties sensitive to bitter-pit
June - August Multi-K: 5-10

5-6

Other varieties
6 weeks after flowering MAPMKP: 5-10

3-4

Till harvest
Post blossom Magnisal: 2.5-5

3-4

Till harvest
After harvest MAP : 5-10

2

To build up reserves

General remarks: 
1. Final rate and number of applications should be determined according to leaf analysis.
2. MAP or MKP should be selected according to N level in leaf analysis.
3. Do not spray fertilizers 2-3 weeks after flowering to avoid scorching.

 

Recommended rates of major nutrients (% of dry weight)

N

P

K

Mg

Mn

1.4-2.0

0.12

1.2-1.3

0.30-0.35

30-50

A general guideline for splitting K application

Growth stage

Share of K2O at stage (%)

Recommended rate (kg/ha of K2O)

Leaf emergence

15

23

Flowering

20

30

Fruit-set

25

37

Fruit growth

25

37

Fruit maturation

15

23

Total

100

150

Foliar feeding

Fall is an excellent season to prepare the tree to next season requirements in N, K and Fe. As long as foliage is green and active it will readily absorb these nutrients applied by foliar sprays.

Macro elements removed by 1 ton marketable product

N

P

K

Ca

Mg

S

-------------------------------------- Kg/ton ------------------------------------------

0.6

0.7

1.3

 

0.9

 

Source: Kinoch: VOLHOUBARE LANDBOU, RSA. Processed by Frans Lourens,Haifa, RSA May, 1999.

Sufficient nutrient range of apples*

Element

Nutrient range (%)

Element

Nutrient range (ppm)

N

1.9-2.4

Mn

31-150

P

0.17-0.28

Fe

35-150

K

1.2-1.8

B

28-50

Ca

1.3-1.7

Cu

5-10

Mg

0.24-0.36

Mo

0.5-1.5

   

Zn

20-50

* Leaf samples taken between July 15 and August 15 from Mid-shoot leaves on current season’s growth in accordance with instruction provided with the plant analysis.
Source:  Fertilizing Fruit Crops – Ohio Cooperative Extension Service, The Ohio state University p. 11.

Apples – Mineral analysis values

 

Mature leaves

Nutrient

Average value

Critical level

 

(%)

N

2.30

1.70

S

0.19

0.08

P

0.30

0.18

K

2.00

1.20

Mg

0.40

0.25

Ca

2.00

1.30

Na

0.02

 
 

(ppm)

Fe

90

15

Al

40

 

Mn

140

35

B

60

35

Cu

20

5

Zn

60

20

Mo

0.8

0.05

Plant analysis guide

Nutrient sufficiency ranges (source: A & L, Agronomy Handbook, Ankerman & Large Eds.)

Apples

N

S

P

K

Mg

Ca

Na

B

Zn

Mn

Fe

Cu

Al

Mo

------------------------ % -------------------------

--------------- p.p.m ---------------

From

1.75

0.15

0.15

1.20

0.20

1.00

0.01

25

15

30

100

6

   
To

2.75

0.30

0.40

2.00

0.35

1.60

0.15

50

60

180

200

25

 

 

Plant tissue sampling procedures:

Stage of growth Plant part
Five to eight weeks after full bloom 4 to 8 leaves from spurs or near base of current season’s growth

Base dressing recommendations (kg/hectare)

Year

N

P2O5

K2O

CaO

MgO

1st year

48

48

36

48

6

2nd year

42

48

63

36

9

3rd year

50

60

90

40

12.5

Source: recommendations of Agro-Nutrientes Especiales (ANE). (February,2000)