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Pioneering the Future

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Mango fertilizer: a fertilization program for mango trees

Haifa's fertilizers provide an effective source of potassium and nitrogen for the mango tree. Furthermore, Multi-K fertilizer has a positive effect on the fruit retention, fruit size and yield

I. Young, non-bearing trees.

Recommendations for Fertigation

Suggested by Chatpracha  Sonklien, Agronomist of Haifa-Thailand

Soil type: Medium - Heavy.
Plant Density: 125 - 156 tree / Ha.
Non-Bearing trees: (1-3 years).
Based on 150 irrigation days/year.

 

 

Age of trees (years)

Fertilizers

Rate
(g/tree)

N

P2O5

K2O

(g/tree/year)

1

Poly-Feed Drip 20-20-20

3

90

90

90

2

Poly-Feed Drip 20-20-20

5

150

150

150

3

Poly-Feed Drip

7

147

74

220

 

Application rates should be adjusted according to soil and leaf analysis, wherever available.

II. Mature, bearing trees.

Nutrients removal in 1 MT/Ha of yield.

 

N

P2O5

K2O

Ca

Mg

Kg/Ha

6.53

1.73

7.46

5.53

2.95

Nutrient levels (%) in leaves of high yielding mango trees

Cultivar

N

P2O5

K2O

Kent, Smith

1.28

0.115

0.5

Dashehari

1.33

   

Haden

1.29

0.134

0.59

Desirable Levels

1.32 

0.12

0.5

 

A general guideline for splitting K application in fertigation programs for mango

 

Growth stage

Share of K2O at stage (%)

Recommended rate (kg/ha of K2O)

Leaf emergence

15

15

Flowering

20

20 

Fruit-set

25

25

Fruit growth

25

25

Fruit maturation

15

15

Total

100

100

 

 

Mango Blooming

Recommendations for foliar sprays in mango, prevailing in the Philippines (source: Kital)

Multi-K:

  1. First Spray: When leaves are in mature-dormant stage.
  2. Second Spray: Oftentimes, if flowering is poor or does not occur, a second spray using low concentration of KNO3 should be applied 10-14 days after the first spray. This procedure can increase flowering in mango.

During wet months  (July to November): 2 to 2.5% KNO3 is recommended.
During dry months (December to May): a lower concentration of 1- 1.5% KNO3 is recommended.

 

Multi-NPK:

 

Foliar feeding:

 

Any fertilizer applied to the tree via the soil cannot be utilized by the developing flowers; hence, foliar spray is needed. When Haifa Potassium Nitrate is sprayed on the tree it becomes a fast and effective source of potassium and nitrogen.

 

It is recommended to spray twice:

 

First spray: Apply 1 to 2 percent KNO3 solution at about 42 days after flower induction. The first application is done to encourage fruit setting and minimize fruit drop.

Second Spray: For the second spray, apply 1 to 2 percent KNO3 solution
at about 65 days after induction. This is done to increase fruit size.

 

Fruit retention & Yield increase:

First spray: When panicles in shoot are 3-15 cm.

Second spray:  When 50% to 100% of panicles are in anthesis.

Effect of Multi-K sprayed on mango trees during flowering on fruit retention, fruit size and yield

S.A Oosthuyse, 1996, South Africa

 

Introduction

Fruit retention and size are typical problems in mango cultivars “Tommy Atkins”, “Kent” and “Haden”, which are grown in the dry subtropical regions of South Africa.
In these cultivars, the fruit often becomes overly large, and does not obtain prime prices in the export markets of Europe.
The solution to these problems is a treatment that increases fruit retention and, at the same time, reduces fruit size.


Materials and Methods

 

Multi-K foliar spraying at 2% or 4% was applied either once during the flowering period, when the inflorescence were in full-bloom, or twice during this period, first when the inflorescence were developing and subsequently when they were in full-bloom.

After the main period of fruit drop, the number of fruits on each tree was counted. At harvest, the fruits on each tree were individually weighed.

 

Results

In “Tommy Atkins”, one or two applications at 4% Multi-K were most effective in increasing fruit retention. Increased retention was not accompanied by a reduction in fruit size.

In “Haden”, one application with 4% Multi-K was the most effective treatment for increasing fruit retention. This increase was also accompanied with a reduction on fruit size and an increase on tree yield.

Table 1: The influence of one application of 4% Multi-K on “Haden” yield and quality

 

Treatment

Number of fruits harvested

Average fruit weight (g)

Yield (Kg/Tree)

Unsprayed

205

385

78

2% Multi-K

226

366 

83

4% Multi-K

244

367

90

 

 

The fruit size was successfully reduced on “Heidi” and “Kent” such that the fruit generally fell into the desirable size class of  “8” (450 to 550 g).

Multi-K application to “Tommy Atkins”, “Haden” and “Kent” trees during the flowering period is now a routine commercial practice in South Africa.

 

Macro elements removed by 1 ton marketable product

N

P

K

Ca

Mg

S

-------------------------------------- Kg/ton ------------------------------------------

1.5

0.2

1.6

 1.3

0.7

 

 

Source: Kinoch: VOLHOUBARE LANDBOU, RSA. Processed by Frans Lourens, Haifa Chemicals, RSA May, 1999.

 

Plant analysis guide

Nutrient sufficiency ranges (source: A & L, Agronomy Handbook, Ankerman & Large Eds.)

 

Fruit and nut trees

Mango

N

S

P

K

Mg

Ca

Na

B

Zn

Mn

Fe

Cu

Al

Mo

------------------------ % -------------------------

--------------- p.p.m ---------------

From

1.00

0.15

0.10

0.80

0.15

1.50

0.01

25

20

50

50

8

   
To

2.00

0.35

0.35

1.50

0.50

5.00

0.10

50

50

100

200

20